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Research, Statistics and Data on Human Trafficking in Indonesia

Trafficking Victim Identification: A Practitioner Guide (2021) Victim identification is the process by which an individual is identified as a trafficking victim, which, in turn, entitles them to rights and protections. While formal identification should lead to and facilitate the opportunity for a victim to be referred for assistance, this does not always occur in practice. Some trafficking victims are not identified and assisted by frontline responders and practitioners. Other victims decline to be identified and assisted. Still other victims may be formally identified but not referred for assistance or may be forced to accept assistance. This practitioner guide reviews existing research on victim identification (and non-identification), touching on why some victims are (and are not) identified, challenges in the identification process and practices that may enhance victim identification.

Special and Additional Measures for Child Trafficking Victims: A Practitioner Guide (2021) The ASEAN Trafficking Convention (ACTIP) explicitly recognizes that child victims have special needs and that appropriate measures are needed to ensure the safety and well-being of child victims, from identification to the securing of a durable solution involving longer-term support. Care and protection must be made available on an equal and non-discriminatory basis with no distinction between child nationals and child non-nationals. Special attention should be paid to assessing and meeting the requirements of children with special needs such as the very young, those with disabilities and those who have suffered severe exploitation and abuse. This practitioner guide reviews existing research on the specific needs and experiences of trafficked children as well as measures in place and challenges faced to protect them. Based on this analysis, practitioners will be guided to a deeper understanding of how to more effectively address the critical issues that arise in implementing special and additional measures for trafficked children.

The Tradition of Toil. The interplay of social norms and stigma in relation to human trafficking in Indonesia Case Study: West Sumba and South-west Sumba. This report explores how social norms and stigma can be drivers of vulnerability to trafficking and barriers to the effective reintegration of survivors in West Sumba and Southwest Sumba, Indonesia.

Report on Child Sexual Exploitation in the Tourism Industry: An Analysis of Ambiguous Spaces in Bali (2020)

Getting to Good Human Trafficking Data: Everyday Guidelines for Frontline Practitioners in Southeast Asia

Getting to Good Human Trafficking Data: Assessing the Landscape in Southeast Asia and Promising Practices from ASEAN Governments and Civil Societies

Prostitution and Human Trafficking in Bali and Indonesia by Dark Bali Founder, Dalaina May for the Women’s Human Rights Institute of Korea 

Memo on Relevant International and National Laws on HT in Indonesia

The 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report (find Indonesia on page 257)

Women as Commodities, the Analysis of Local Culture Factor and Communication Approach of Women Trafficking in West Java, Indonesia – This paper is based on field observations and review of document reports (Metadata). The data have been collected through interviews and observations to the area of trafficking in west Java and sending areas such as Batam in Riau and Kalimantan border. This study shows that poverty, low education, local culture (mluruduit) are the cause factors of women become a commodity in the trafficking. In addition, interpersonal communication approach through family members, couples and boyfriend by recruiters is the strategy in the recruitment of potential victims of trafficking.

Moving On. Family and Community Reintegration Among Indonesian Trafficking Victims 2017 –  A Nexus Institute research project which explores the complex dynamics of the environment into which victims of trafficking return. It presents our research focusing on family and community members and describes the circumstances to which victims come back after their escape or rescue. Despite many daunting challenges upon return, it was often the support within families and communities that gave rise to resilience and this was an essential foundation for recovery and reintegration success. (Executive Summary)

Our Lives. Vulnerability and Resilience Among Indonesian Trafficking Victims 2017 – A Nexus Institute research project which sheds light on the broader contours of the lives of victims of trafficking. It looks, for example, at the existence of vulnerabilities, life challenges, and needs in the lives of individuals during a wider swath of their lives to include those that existed pre-trafficking, those that arose or were accentuated during and because of trafficking, and those that developed after the individual’s rescue or escape and return home. To help round out the picture further, this research includes the perspective of family members and members of the community, when possible and appropriate. (Executive Summary)

Going home. Challenges in the reintegration of trafficking victims in Indonesia 2016 –  A Nexus Institute research project introduces what support is available for reintegration of victims of human trafficking in Indonesia, and the constraints and obstacles victims face in accessing that support. (Executive Summary)

Indonesia Now Number One Destination for Australian Child Sex Tourists

Offenders on the Move: Global Study on Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism 2016


Resources for Aftercare

Trafficking Victim Protection and Support: A Practitioner Guide (2021) Victims of trafficking are entitled to, and should receive, immediate protection from their exploiters and from the possibility of further harm, including the risk of re-trafficking. They should receive support to meet their immediate needs and ensure their well-being, irrespective of their willingness to participate in criminal justice procedures, protection from detention and prosecution and the right to privacy. This practitioner guide reviews existing research on the protection and support of trafficking victims in Asia, both in terms of what exists and what challenges arise in the provision of protection and support.

Recovery and Reintegration of Trafficking Victims: A Practitioner Guide (2021) Recovery and reintegration is a complex and costly undertaking, often requiring a full and diverse set of services for victims (and sometimes their families), who themselves have widely differing short- and long-term physical, psychological, social and economic needs. Once the immediate needs of trafficked persons have been met, many victims require further assistance to reintegrate into their families and communities (e.g. vocational training, economic support, long-term access to healthcare, counseling, education, family mediation). Some assistance needs are a consequence of trafficking while others may be linked to vulnerabilities that existed before victims were trafficked as well as issues that have arisen in victims’ lives after trafficking. Because successful reintegration can take years to achieve, reintegration services must be available in the long-term and include follow-up and case management. This practitioner guide reviews and synthesizes existing research on recovery and reintegration of trafficking victims including barriers and challenges in the reintegration process as well as opportunities and entry points for supporting sustainable reintegration.

The Directory Of Services for Indonesian Trafficking Victims and Exploited Migrant Workers is for Indonesian trafficking victims who require information about the assistance that is available to them, including where and how to access this assistance. This includes Indonesians trafficked abroad as well as those exploited within Indonesia. It can also be used by organizations and institutions working with trafficking victims, to inform victims about their rights and available services. The Directory can be disseminated by these organizations to ensure that trafficking victims have the information they need to receive assistance and services after trafficking

Child Protection Policy Template and Self Audit Tool aims to help organizations think through child protection and presents basic standards and protocols for organizations. (This toolkit is appropriate for organizations that are not live-in shelters as well. )

Hands that Heal: International Curriculum to Train Caregivers of Trafficking Survivors provides a comprehensive approach to serving victims of trafficking and educating caregivers so that they may appropriately and effectively provide care and support. (Contact: to purchase Indonesian translations)

Comprehensive Human Trafficking Assessment Tool is for frontline professionals to identify and assist potential victims of trafficking. This assessment is inclusive of both labor and sex trafficking

Guidance Note on the Use of Victim’s Images produced by Freedom Collaborative, Liberty Asia, and Chab Dai

Shelter Self-Improvement Toolkit provides victims service providers with a basic set of tools and program guidelines to implement a shelter self-improvement project based on international quality standards for rights-based trafficking victims protection and services.

The Bare Minimum details the standards of care and protection for the victims/survivors of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Topics include shelter guidelines, case management, reintegration, and media responsibility.

Prevention Tools

The Priceless Cube is a seven-panel, puzzle cube that unfolds and flips to reveal images that emphasize key elements to understand human trafficking. Please contact us for information about shipping within Indonesia.  (Priceless Cube-Indonesian translation.)

Enslaved: MTV Exit Special Hosted by Dian Sastrowardoyo (20 minutes) discusses human trafficking in Indonesia. (subtitled in English) (If accessed inside Indonesia, a VPN will be needed.)

Awareness Pamphlet developed by PEARL

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Trauma and Counseling Resources

Resiliency Building Plan Worksheet is a practical document for helping caregivers work alongside survivors of trauma to inventory their personal strengths, identify helpful coping strategies, and acknowledge areas for growth as they seek to manager trauma triggers and increase their resiliency to adversity.

Bounceback Handout is a 14 page document designed especially for youth and young adults to help them understand resiliency and how to increase their resiliency. The handout has multiple inventories, assessments, and worksheets that can be used by an individual, with a caregiver, or in a group. It also has a long recommended reading list on the topics of resiliency and overcoming adversity

How Brain Science Can Help Explain Discrepancies in a Sexual Assault Survivor’s Story is about how trauma “affects pathways important for memory formation, which means that an individual can fail to correctly encode and store memories experienced during trauma. While an individual generally will remember the traumatic event itself (unless alcohol or drugs are present in the system), these memories will feel fragmented, and may take time to piece together in a way that makes narrative sense.”

Child Sexual Abuse, Traumatic Experiences, and Their Impact on the Developing Brain is Chapter 2 in the Handbook of Child Sexual Abuse. It explains the physiological impact of childhood trauma (and sexual abuse in particular) on the brain and the cascade of consequences this impact has.

How Childhood Trauma Affects Health Across a Lifetime (TED talk). Pediatrician Nadine Burke Harris explains that the repeated stress of abuse, neglect and parents struggling with mental health or substance abuse issues has real, tangible effects on the development of the brain. This unfolds across a lifetime, to the point where those who’ve experienced high levels of trauma are at triple the risk for heart disease and lung cancer.

7 Ways Childhood Adversity Can Change Your Brain looks at the consequences of trauma on the developing brain and the implications for a survivor’s future.

The Body Keeps the Score by Dr. Bessel van der Kolk, uses recent scientific advances to show how trauma literally reshapes both body and brain, compromising sufferers’ capacities for pleasure, engagement, self-control, and trust. He explores innovative treatments—from neurofeedback and meditation to sports, drama, and yoga—that offer new paths to recovery by activating the brain’s natural neuroplasticity. Based on Dr. van der Kolk’s own research and that of other leading specialists, The Body Keeps the Score exposes the tremendous power of our relationships both to hurt and to heal—and offers new hope for reclaiming lives.

Resources for Caring for the Caregiver

Self-Care Wheel – was inspired by and adapted from “Self-Care Assessment Worksheet” from Transforming the Pain: A Workbook on Vicarious Traumatization by Saakvitne, Pearlman, & Staff of TSI/CAAP (Norton, 1996). It shows 6 different categories of self-care with helpful ideas within each.

The Emotionally Healthy Leader by Peter Scazerro is taught from a Christian perspective and shows leaders how to develop a deep, inner life with Christ, examining its profound implications for surviving stress, planning and decision making, building teams, creating healthy culture, influencing others, and much more.